Building capacity for genomic surveillance of malaria mosquitoes in Africa
Metrics details. Insecticide-treated nets ITNs are losing efficacy against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vector populations throughout Africa. Safeguarding bed net efficacy, vital for effective malaria control, requires greater knowledge of mosquito—ITN interactions and how this impacts on the mosquito. Time and duration of defined behavioural events, and knockdown and mortality at 1- and h post-exposure respectively, were recorded for pyrethroid susceptible and resistant mosquitoes. Using three human volunteers differing in relative attractiveness to mosquitoes, mosquitoes were individually tested. The sequence of behavioural events from host-seeking to completion of blood-feeding was consistent in all tests but duration and start time of events involving net contact were reduced or delayed respectively with ITNs. Blood-feeding durations at untreated nets means from 4. After initial contact, blood-feeding commenced later at Olyset mean 2.
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Work has started on two new sports fields, cricket pitch, floodlighting, sports amenities building, playground, outdoor fitness gym and an off-leash dog park. The corridor would include dedicated rapid transit lanes for public transport and multi traffic lanes. Council aims to achieve a travel time from Liverpool to the airport of minutes using trackless trams or autonomous vehicles.
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XXIII. FLIGHT. (a) Speed and range of flight R. M. Gordon of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, and Professor P. A. Buxton,. F.R.S. and Dr America in fact does general use of the word mosquito date back as far as the literature.
The eight-year-old was rushed to hospital and kept in for treatment. A little girl was left seriously ill in hospital after being bitten while out on a walk with her family. Ellie was with her family at Rivington Pike when she suffered a tick bite while walk at the beauty spot back in June. The eight-year-old later noticed a swollen lump on the back of her leg that looked like a mosquito bite but they didn’t know what had caused it.
Mum, Jen Johnson, said she began treating the lump with antiseptic cream and antihistamines. According to Manchester Evening News , over the next week, the lump became worse and Ellie began complaining that her leg was sore. She was told to take her daughter to hospital straight away and an hour later she was being treated on Wigan Hospital’s Rainbow Ward for an infected tick bite.
Jen, who lives in Wigan, said: “I honestly didn’t know the seriousness of this type of bite and want to make other parents aware of this, especially with the increase of people’s outdoor adventures. Mum-of-two Jen added: “She’s not showing a high temperature or muscle joint pain at the minute. In a Facebook post to warn other parents to be on their guard for tick bites, Jen said: “Just want to share my experience, not for sympathy, but to make people aware of what we think is just a normal infected bite to something that could have turned out much worse if it wasn’t caught in time.
By Emma Gill. Ellie in hospital being treated for an infected tick bite Image: Manchester Evening News. Come rain or sunshine, the Echo newsletter brings the latest news straight to your inbox Sign me up When you subscribe we will use the information you provide to send you these newsletters.
ANTI-VeC Network Funding Opportunities
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you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). On 1 July, the group released a test batch of mosquitoes also include conserving delicate ecosystems and speeding up lab work. says Nolan, who now runs a lab at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK.
Malaria, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis, Vector control, Machine learning, Mid-infrared spectroscopy. Amendments from Version 2 This third version includes the following amendments: We have corrected the typos that have appeared in the text. We have clarified how we have modelled the populations. We have changed Figure 8 to include wavelength units as well.
And we have improved the bibliography with two new references. We sincerely appreciate the comments made by the reviewers during this process. See the authors’ detailed response to the review by Yoosook Lee See the authors’ detailed response to the review by Thomas S. Between and , insecticide-based control interventions targeting mosquito vectors averted an estimated million malaria cases 1. Nevertheless, malaria still kills hundreds of thousands of people each year , in , mainly in sub-Saharan Africa 2.
Additionally, there is concern that progress may have stalled after more than a decade of success in global malaria control 2. Of major concern is the increase in insecticide resistance among mosquito populations throughout Africa 3 , which is degrading the lethality and effectiveness of vector control tools, notably indoor residual spraying IRS and long-lasting insecticide treated nests LLINs which have been the cornerstones of malaria control in the past decades 4.
Indeed, much of the effectiveness of LLINs and IRS comes from community-wide reductions in vector population size, not merely from preventing people from getting bitten 5. Measurement of female mosquito vector survival is an important biological determinant of malaria transmission intensity 6 , 7.
Current Major Works
Vector-borne diseases VBDs such as malaria, dengue, and leishmaniasis exert a huge burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly affecting the poorest of the poor. The principal method by which these diseases are controlled is through vector control, which has a long and distinguished history. Vector control, to a greater extent than drugs or vaccines, has been responsible for shrinking the map of many VBDs. Here, we describe the history of vector control programmes worldwide from the late s to date.
Not only is it minute but, as its name suggests, its natural habitat is thousands of miles away in the warmer climes of the southern hemisphere. Thanks to climate change , this bug has travelled so far north that it is now flourishing in parts of South East England. Colonies of the Asian Tiger mosquito, pictured here, has established colonies in the south of England although small numbers of the potentially dangerous bug have been found as far north as Merseyside.
Last summer was the joint hottest on record for the UK as a whole, and the hottest ever for England, with temperatures climbing above 35C. And if trends continue, some experts fear the Asian tiger — also known as Aedes albopictus — will eventually populate much of the country. Alarm bells are ringing because a bite from an infected mosquito like this can transmit deadly tropical diseases such as Zika virus, dengue fever and an illness called chikungunya, which can cause joint pain, headaches and nose bleeds.
Last month, Professor Chris Whitty, a chief scientific adviser on public health issues for the Department of Health, warned MPs that the presence of the tiny insect here is strong evidence that we face a potential outbreak of Zika. The virus is a huge concern, causing flu-like symptoms in most adults but triggering severe birth defects if a pregnant woman is infected. The Asian tiger, it must be said, has a lower capacity for transmitting disease than its close cousin Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, which was responsible for the recent Zika outbreak in South America.
Self-destructing mosquitoes and sterilized rodents: the promise of gene drives
New research from LSTM has revealed precisely how insecticide-treated bed nets are so effective against malaria mosquitoes. However, as very little is known about how mosquitoes interact with nets or how LLINs do their job so effectively, how they might be modified or improved is not clear. With malaria mosquitoes rapidly becoming resistant to the pyrethroid insecticides used on LLINs, their future is under threat and the need to understand the mode of action has never been more important.
This system allowed the scientists to measure, define and characterise in fine detail, the behavioural events and sequences of the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae , as it interacts with the net. Dr Philip McCall, senior author on the paper, said: “Essentially, the results demonstrated that an LLIN functions as a highly efficient, fast-acting, human-baited insecticidal trap.
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Researchers from LSTM have exploited a natural experiment created by insecticidal pressure to determine how the most important malaria vectors – A. Working with genome analysis specialists from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and field entomologists in Ghana, LSTM researchers sequenced the genomes of individual wild mosquitoes of each species from southern Ghana. The results, published in Nature Communications , reveal that transfer of a major insecticide resistance mutation kdr resulted in replacement of over 3 million surrounding DNA bases 1.
This is especially significant because the two species are very closely related and the region replaced is one of relatively few areas of their genomes that are substantially different. Surprisingly, this apparently huge genomic disruption has had no detectable impact on reproductive isolation with hybridisation rates between the species in Ghana remaining low and stable despite a dramatic rise in frequency of the kdr mutation in A.
The genomic section replaced is not only huge but was previously considered a major ‘speciation island’; a probable location for genes driving reproductive isolation between the species. The findings not only call into question the general importance of ‘speciation islands’, but also importantly show that these closely-related mosquito species, can evolve largely separately but then interchange genetic variation to allow rapid adaptation to human-driven environmental changes. The two species, which co-occur throughout much of West and Central Africa, exhibit behavioural and ecological differences.
Anopheles coluzzii is thought to be able to exploit relatively stable agricultural breeding sites, which can extend malaria transmission far into the dry season. In addition to concerns for vector control, this presented a near-unique opportunity to investigate the popular theory that new species form through the development of pockets of divergence in the genome containing speciation genes. Driven by technological advances and early work on the Anopheles gambiae species pair, this has become a rapidly-growing area of research in evolutionary biology.
LSTM’s Professor Martin Donnelly, senior author of the study, said: “Through our collaboration with the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute we are learning how to use Anopheles genomic information to address questions of immense evolutionary and public health importance. Explore further. More from Biology and Medical.
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Strengthening surveillance systems for vector-borne disease elimination in Africa Day 2: Tuesday 24 September It is easier to implement and as efficient as IRS. The data were used to directly inform the national malaria control programme. To close the gap between communities and their rightful access to healthcare, Brian Gitta CEO of thinkIT Limited, Uganda presented Matibabu, an innovative medically non-invasive, cost-effective device for malaria diagnosis that detects malaria in 2 minutes.
Matibabu can also assist in disease surveillance management. The prototype has been developed based on users experience.
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Austin Burt and Andrea Crisanti had been trying for eight years to hijack the mosquito genome. They wanted to bypass natural selection and plug in a gene that would mushroom through the population faster than a mutation handed down by the usual process of inheritance. In the back of their minds was a way to prevent malaria by spreading a gene to knock out mosquito populations so that they cannot transmit the disease. Crisanti remembers failing over and over. Gene drives have rapidly become a routine technology in some laboratories; scientists can now whip up a drive in months.
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Following a highly competitive two-stage review process, we selected 9 projects which are aligned to the key themes of the Network, relating to vector-pathogen interactions, novel symbionts and transmission blocking, gene drive systems, mosquito behaviour, as well as social sciences and stakeholder engagement to deliver information about genetic control measures. We received 34 expressions of interest at the first stage and the overall quality of the proposals received was very high.
The purpose of these awards is to support training opportunities and exchanges for the transfer of knowledge and skills in genetic and symbiont vector control strategies and related fields. The exchanges will be valuable in terms of increasing interaction between members’ groups, ensuring complex techniques are widely disseminated, and help increase research capacity by giving researchers a broader outlook and range of skills and experience.
The activities supported under this scheme could include laboratory exchanges between member groups, work shadowing, attendance at courses or workshops. This includes:. Applicants must apply to become a network member if not already one. Please read the Application Guidance document providing further information.
It provides important information on the eligibility of applicants and costs.
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Although measurements of mosquito flight speed vary in the literature Of the methods used to date, insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs/ LLINs).
The aim was to bring together mosquito control professionals from across the continent, and provide a platform to build capacity and coordinate efforts to improve mosquito control and prevent diseases like malaria. A few years later, in , we began work at the Sanger Institute on a new project to sequence the genomes of more than 1, malaria mosquitoes collected from across Africa. Thanks to new funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, these efforts are now coming together, and PAMCA has recently invited researchers to propose new projects on mosquito genomics in Africa.
Our mosquito team at the Sanger institute is excited to be supporting those projects, and will sequence the whole genomes of thousands of new mosquitoes collected from locations where we currently have little or no data. Mosquito-borne diseases, particularly malaria, still have a devastating impact on public health in Africa, and massive efforts are made each year to control mosquitoes.
For example, in the Global Fund paid for million insecticide-treated bednets to be distributed in Africa. This approach has led to major reductions in disease, but brute force can only get you so far. Under this intense and uniform pressure, mosquito populations are rapidly evolving, and insecticide resistance has spread across the continent. As we struggle now to gain the upper hand, those working at the front line of mosquito population monitoring and control have a pivotal role to play.
In an ideal world, every province in every malaria-endemic country would have a well-trained, well-resourced, dedicated team of medical entomologists. Those teams would regularly collect data on local mosquito populations and run experiments to compare different tools and tactics for mosquito control.
Dengue across the Mersey! Health chiefs warn the NHS to prepare for deadly tropical diseases
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Ordinary Council Meeting. Doors to the Francis Greenway Centre will open at 5. Liverpool City Council Meetings are taped for the purposes of minute taking and record keeping. I f you have any enquiries please contact Council and Executive Services on Kiersten Fishburn. Order of Business. Acknowledgment of Country and Prayer. National Anthem. Confirmation of Minutes. Ordinary Council Meeting held on 27 March